Medicinal plants played a central role in folk medical knowledge. Indigenous nightshade plants, containing hallucinogenic substances, have been used in pain-relieving and anesthetizing ointments. Herbs were used in both healing spells and curses. Witches hex with certain magic props such as herbs, parts of the human or animal bodies such as hair, nails, bones, urine or with all kinds of reptiles, which have always been associated with the devil's domain. Witches were believed to cause harm by mere touch or by putting the evil eye on someone. With their harming magic, they allegedly cause not only disease and impotence, but also influence nature and can cause severe weather and damage crops.
Everyday misfortunes were quickly attributed to a magic spell that caused a witch. A suspect was often found very soon.